0000019861 00000 n As technology develops, how do you think insurgency and counterinsurgency will evolve? Counter-insurgency operations include many different facets: military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken to defeat insurgency. �"�Gi���n�,�ahX��-����g�/� ��{�l�d�>��&2̈!�Ld�'�3M�*$0z� ? Strikingly, Santa Cruz recognized that insurgencies are usually due to real grievances: "A state rarely rises up without the fault of its governors." 0000001899 00000 n Securing the population is thus the most important line of operations. 0000004224 00000 n Defence Studies: Vol. America's enemies understand that to fight the U.S. armed forces with conventional forces in the open field is tantamount to suicide—as Saddam Hussein discovered for himself. Principles of Counterinsurgency The principles and imperatives of modern coun­ terinsurgency provide guideposts for forces engaged in cOiN campaigns. 0000002540 00000 n Letter from Iraq: The Lesson of Tal Afar, by George Packard, The New Yorker, April 10, 2006, The Colombian Miracle by Max Boot and Richard W. Bennett, The Weekly Standard, December 7, 2009, 28 Articles: Fundamentals of Company-Level Counterinsurgency by David Kilcullen, Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars, by Frank Hoffman, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Dr. Ucko and Dr. Egnell explore the lessons about counterinsurgency that we have learned during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Even though U.S. forces have left Iraq and there is a planned reduction in U.S. forces in Afghanistan, the era of counterinsurgency is far from over. Moreover the conditions for the growth of insurgency—chiefly a lack of effective governance—exist in many areas of the world, especially in Central Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and parts of Latin America and Southeast Asia. It will be combined Irregular warfare has been ubiquitous throughout history and is more important than ever today, at a time when conventional warfare is growing increasingly rare. But what does all the theory mean, at the company level? iӍ�u��HMnT��=):���֯d7'�E��+\��&z����8=�qE��@?�]�L�8�Nj�-��WSV��:=�B�6xR�Wt��x��9"8��]�#dz���1'��7Y�'I�N�0c��"r����O�m�닔�.��Q�f���X�U�=� �)?f The author concludes that a Viet Cong military victory in South Vietnam is not possible as … How do the principles … 0000009512 00000 n Examples include the American Revolution, the Irish War of Independence, Yugoslavia during World War II, the French wars in Indochina and Algeria, the US war in Vietnam, and the Soviet campaign in Afghanistan. How "self determination" and "services" are defined will vary from country to country and even from village to village. That said, the strategic significance of insurgency has ebbed and flowed over time. To understand counter-insurgency, one must understand insurgencyto comprehend the dynamics of revolutionary warfare. Insurgents capitalize on societal problems, often called gaps; counte… Only by living among the people and protecting them from insurgent intimidation can a military force gain the people's trust and thus acquire the understanding necessary to target insurgent cadres. %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000014936 00000 n However, counterinsurgency is a strange and complicated beast. It is based on existing doctrine and lessons learned from recent combat operations. Irregular-warfare tactics, on the other hand, have shown a far higher likelihood of success against American military forces. 0000006447 00000 n The Taliban … (2010). General Petraeus: I think many of the concepts of the past counterinsurgency campaigns remain valid. Army Field Manual 3-24: Counterinsurgency [open pdf - 14 MB] "This field manual/Marine Corps war-fighting publication establishes doctrine (fundamental principles) for military operations in a counterinsurgency (COIN) environment. 0000010305 00000 n Some of that intelligence can be acquired by technical means, but there is no substitute for the situational awareness provided by security forces (whether American or host-nation) who are in daily contact with the population. 0000008763 00000 n This support should be based upon common principles of insurgency, counterinsurgency and counterinsurgency support to the host nation. 0000014362 00000 n 0000001118 00000 n 0000008019 00000 n and Psychological Dimensions of War, Strategy and the Political Dimensions of War, Technology, Doctrine and Combat Development, FM 3-24: Army/Marine Counterinsurgency Field Manual, ATTP 3-37.31, Civilian Casualties Mitigation, June 2012, FM 3-05.2, Foreign Internal Defense, September 2011. 0000003672 00000 n Combined-arms operations will be required to route insurgents out of their strongholds and to provide security against their incursions into population centers. If there were no immutable laws or empirical formulas for counterinsurgency, there existed certain basic principles and traits that marked and will continue to mark successful, and unsuccessful, outcomes. �E��.0�xޢ/����� pWW�7���]�X��g$��+6,�y�0e��~D~��"��V�R|e����C�ϋ�x�L �%� �pr^�>֜�~����h�%�A-v��.wR��M�� �Z�����̶�b���*|�? The ten principles for counterinsurgency, explained in Chapter 3, are: 1. from the early “classics” of the Western counterinsurgency canon such as those of David Galula and Sir Robert Thompson through to the recent U.S. field manual on counterinsurgency, FM 3-24.10 As discussed in detail below, there is reason to believe that two core principles of Western counterinsurgency doctrine—the need to studied FM 3-24 and now understand the history, philosophy and theory of counterinsurgency. endstream endobj 471 0 obj<>/Metadata 95 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 94 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/StructTreeRoot 97 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20090608183821)/PageLabels 92 0 R>> endobj 472 0 obj<>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 473 0 obj[474 0 R 475 0 R 476 0 R 477 0 R 478 0 R 479 0 R 480 0 R] endobj 474 0 obj<>/A 504 0 R/H/I/StructParent 1/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 475 0 obj<>/A 503 0 R/H/I/StructParent 2/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 476 0 obj<>/A 502 0 R/H/I/StructParent 3/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 477 0 obj<>/A 501 0 R/H/I/StructParent 4/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 478 0 obj<>/A 500 0 R/H/I/StructParent 5/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 479 0 obj<>/A 499 0 R/H/I/StructParent 6/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 480 0 obj<>/A 498 0 R/H/I/StructParent 7/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 481 0 obj<> endobj 482 0 obj<> endobj 483 0 obj<> endobj 484 0 obj[/Indexed 485 0 R 46 505 0 R] endobj 485 0 obj[/ICCBased 497 0 R] endobj 486 0 obj<> endobj 487 0 obj<> endobj 488 0 obj<> endobj 489 0 obj<>stream What enemy TTPs and environmental conditions can we incorporate into our training to improve our COIN proficiency? Counterinsurgency is the use of all elements of a nation's power—including not only combined-arms operations but also psychological, political, economic, intelligence, and diplomatic operations—to defeat an insurgency. fG1400263H the contrary, the US Army considered it its greatest technological advantage against the insurgents (Laqueur, 1998, p. 275). ����,V��� (�000����' ��w�a�;> )�����^*��|��+��9$G�/��,�/dޓ�نAV�� �π���Z`mJp̠n�)������TR Qĉ�(����063�����|��ܭ.,�����i���^L b\�#g�Ε���Aj�0�J?��n%nx\�mx͋׻ the principles of warfare remain the same. The remaining six chapters cover the operational aspects of the overall campaign; intelligence, the … 0000005213 00000 n That is, the support of the people is the primary objective of a counterinsurgency campaign. It is based on lessons learned from historic counterinsurgencies and current operations. Examples include the Philippine Insurrection, the Boer War, the Huk Rebellion, the Malay Emergency, the "Troubles" in Northern Ireland, the 1980s war in El Salvador, the "surge" in Iraq, the Second Intifada, and Colombia's campaign against the FARC in the past decade. Counterinsurgency in the Hot Revolutionary War 49 Laws and Principles of Counterinsurgency Warfare 50 Strategy of the Counterinsurgency 55 6. Counterinsurgency is the use of all elements of a nation's power—including not only combined-arms operations but also psychological, political, economic, intelligence, and diplomatic operations—to defeat an insurgency. Counterinsurgency is warfare; it is distinctly political, not primarily military; and it involves the people, the government, and the military. 0000005456 00000 n xref Lawrence attributed his success in aiding the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire to "hard study and brain-work and concentration," an example at odds with what he denounced as the "fundamental, crippling, incuriousness" of many fellow officers who were "too much body and too little head." U�?��c�=�Fi���֘��+�v���W��R3ki �E���rrUg��x���Q_���Ik���A-�N5�M�1:�Q�\��ucB�>p]Y�C�x0���q�0 |f��4 ��D�[��I荴X�J��U~�0�|׊O(L�o�� գ,1c8ܚ���ԫVz����)��i�ZQ���T Demarest, Geoffrey. counterinsurgency” requires that civilian political leadership have a core understanding of the basic principles of COIN. Most insurgencies utilize a combination of guerrilla and terrorist tactics—the former are hit-and-run attacks directed primarily at government security forces, the latter are attacks directed primarily against civilians—supported by propaganda and political organizing. ", Dr. David Ucko and Dr. Robert Egnell Questions and Answers, Dr. David Ucko and Dr. Robert Egnell Interview. An insurgency is an organized uprising that uses violent and nonviolent means to overthrow an existing government or to wrest away control, either de jure or de facto, over part of its territory. Counterinsurgency: Principles and Practices in Viet-Nam Author: James Farmer Subject: Discussion of the criteria for measuring success in counterinsurgency. 0000014631 00000 n This does not necessarily mean increasing the capacity of the host-nation government--if the government is widely seen as corrupt or illegitimate, making it more powerful can be self-defeating. It is based on lessons learned from previous counterinsurgencies and contemporary operations. 5. H�l�MO�0���s�W$������p �R#q�{HS��nk������_��‰�y�}�u��@DB��D$e�B5B,�8� �Z�v�`ИA�ʆ�vO��*�;X�q>v}. Consequently, … 0000014415 00000 n The principles and imperatives of modern counterinsurgency provide guideposts for forces engaged in COIN campaigns. g�D�v֦R"N����o��Z���7�-s;�=�+W �p�K%a��n�aZ��������LUa�>}x=d�0T! The counterinsurgency guidance issued there is the argument that the by General McChrystal strongly echoed the appearance of stability in Iraq was counterinsurgency principles of FM 3–24 and illusory and that the country’s worst the guidance provided by General Petraeus in years still lie ahead Iraq. This field manual establishes doctrine (fundamental principles) for tactical counterinsurgency (COIN) operations at the company, battalion, and brigade level. They collaboratively authored the book "Counterinsurgency in Crisis. Without security nothing else will last." endstream endobj 508 0 obj<>/Size 470/Type/XRef>>stream Successfully countering an insurgency will require commanders to skillfully synchronize multiple lines of operations, acting in concert with host-nation forces as well as representatives of other U.S. government agencies. ]JKa��c*����idD�#���^PQ[b�;sd�G���j���ߨ$�?�=�3 ��o�8���Tdi�� "Irregular warfare is far more intellectual than a bayonet charge." The third Marques of Santa Cruz de Marcenado(1684–1732) is probably the earliest author who dealt systematically in his writings with counter-insurgency. 0000004605 00000 n 1 - 1 1-2. x�b```b``�d`c`�� Ȁ ���, ,YdE{.~��zN�}�%���ҟ�60`|B�F! Property & Peace: Insurgency, Strategy and the Statute of Frauds, DIA, 2008. --Field Marshal Sir Gerald Templer. There It does mean addressing the desire of the people for self-determination and the delivery of some basic governmental services. This study posits there are 17 principles of counter-insurgency warfare which fall into four broad categories: strategic, operational, logistical, and cultural. Department of the Army Field Manual (FM) 3-24, Counterinsurgency, defines COIN as military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat an insurgency. From Strategy to Tactics 61 Command Problems 61 Selection of the Area of Efforts 67 Political Preparation 71 The First Area as … 0000003218 00000 n The strength of the relationship between these three groups generally determines the outcome of the campaign. ]��!s�6r�V�:;�'J?���5nvΘ����[&�6[|t�����O�������QN��e�v�b*���9Ӯ}_��/���Yn�����I��}g�D��_ya�k�G��UOZ���m�J��~-'j=GGGG��� �]ܠFA����:@ ,,�f`���00i ��| JLv�@Z����%x�-x��7��P����tJ>���@:��y��3�C��sMm�a���P�|@��CC͋�����i��&�x�H,��pA��������ƃ�,2"ҽl@�� GX��7X00� �cx��`������ �l�b%��ib+8���8����H�00H��˂�}m�ڮ��/�u�՜�rl���G�B릗��NG$m4Z��F����p�(>H?� Ԗ���x;(�( � kK�� Second, once familiar with relevant doctrine, leaders should read books and articles that provide an overview of irregular warfare operations since ancient times as well as accounts of its evolution since the early 20th century. 0000005177 00000 n 0000001714 00000 n H�tT]o�0}ϯ��0%��TUZ�Vj�HU˴��8��#B��w��Ǻ.y ���{�.F,b��P���x�͠�!�Q�80(��� >���@ZU 1. At its core, a counterinsurgency is a battle for government legitimacy in the minds of its people. principles) in counter-insurgency warfare in order to optimize conditions for success on the battlefield as well as throughout the duration of the conflict. Next, leaders might study a specific COIN operation in which integration of whole-of-government efforts made possible the defeat or significant diminution of the enemy. The first five chapters cover aspects of the law, the principles of counter insurgency, a concept of operations and the coordination of a plan of action by a government at the strategic level. Following the principles and imperatives does not guarantee suc­ cess, which is just one of the several paradoxes of counterinsurgency. Sir Robert Thompson’s Lessons for Iraq: Bringing the ‘Basic Principles of Counter‐Insurgency’ into the 21st Century. 0000010997 00000 n July, 2008. Such unrestrained use of force characterised by outrageous airpower shooting and heavy attacks on the hamlets severely damaged their credibility with the rural population (Ong, 2007, p. 16). Conversely leaders should also look at unsuccessful COIN campaigns to see what mistakes to avoid. This project sets out to identify underlying tenets (or principles) in counter-insurgency warfare in order to optimize conditions for success on the battlefield as well as throughout the duration of the conflict. This infers a connection between this past decade of counterinsurgency, and the people’s wars of previous eras. Nor does it necessarily involve spending lots of money on expensive public-works projects that the locals may not want and will be unable to operate on their own. Janine Davidson outlines the American experience with insurgency, describes the basic principles … H�|�Ko�0������E�mأ���Q*E�(�. Irregular warfare is the oldest form of warfare—it long predates the rise of conventional armies in ancient Mesopotamia around 3000 BC. The author concludes that a Viet Cong military victory in South Vietnam is not possible as long as the United States in supporting the government. The widely distributed and influential work of Sir Robert Thompson offers several such guidelines. Discussion of the criteria for measuring success in counterinsurgency. From: Counter Insurgency Operations(1995) These principles are in fact derived from earlier UK works dating back as far as 1977. startxref Indeed, counterinsurgency is a common function for most states and an inevitable one for empires. Counterinsurgency (COIN) operations are very complex and have been the topic of numerous books, articles, and debates over the last decade. What deficiencies have you identified in your own understanding of COIN? 177-194. 0000002766 00000 n 0000007224 00000 n <]>> This FMI establishes doctrine (fundamental principles and TTP) for military operations in a counterinsurgency environment. Insurgents, in fact, count on security forces to over-react and thereby to drive more recruits into their ranks. International organizations, non-governmental organizations, and the news media are also likely to be present on the battlefield, and the successful commander must interact with them constructively, and if possible use them to achieve campaign objectives, even though they are outside the military chain of command. 0000002157 00000 n (qRO�Ҫ����l��fW�s�{����՛������_͖s�p?�������6��#NA(p�B*)�L�TD�O�"ɉbXs���G Block 2: Principles and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency Module 2.1 Population-centric and Enemy-centric COIN Module 2.2 NATO Principles of COIN Module 2.3 Paradoxes of COIN Block 3: Operational Environment Module 3.1 Elements of a Stable State Module 3.2 Elements of State Instability Module 3.3 Components and Analysis of the Operational Environment FM 3-05.2, Foreign Internal Defense, September 2011. To what extent do you see classical principles of counterinsurgency still applicable today? Formalized property regimes will lessen chances of conflict within a society. %%EOF 0 trailer Created Date: 2/15/2008 12:09:02 PM You watched Black Hawk Down and The Battle of Algiers, and you know this will be the most difficult challenge of your life. Principles. First, maneuver leaders should become familiar with the relevant Army doctrine, which in turn can provide leaders with a context for studying history. endstream endobj 490 0 obj<>stream Our enemies study, and are inspired by, the examples of Vietnam, Beirut (1983), Somalia (1993), Iraq, Afghanistan and other conflicts where irregular forces have inflicted significant setbacks and even defeats on American forces. Rufus Phillips discusses his role as an American Advisor to the South Vietnamese Army in the 1950s and the lessons he learned from this experience. *�:����p��^� 'i����ߵ�y#p3J!�:�ā�k�Z�j(��5Vq���tm���|�ҹw�%ޠą��QZ��� 0000000016 00000 n endstream endobj 491 0 obj<>stream 0000003369 00000 n Fundamental Principles of COIN . 0000005131 00000 n The United States has a long but convoluted history of counterinsurgency, or COIN. For all these reasons irregular warfare will continue to be prevalent. Counter-insurgency is normally conducted as a combination of conventional military operations and other means, such as propaganda, psy-ops, and assassinations. 0000005789 00000 n 0000011630 00000 n ATTP 3-37.31, Civilian Casualties Mitigation, June 2012. Future combat leaders should heed Lawrence's injunction to study hard, especially when preparing for COIN—the most intellectually challenging realm of warfare. Moreover, in the case of Afghanistan, heavy airstrikes and substantial US support to war lords did managed to topple the Taliban regime, but did not extinguish the insurgency. ... What are some principles, which you have identified, that have not changed with the evolution of technology? Counterinsurgency Principles for the Diplomat. As John Paul Vann, an American adviser in Vietnam, said, "Security may be ten percent of the problem, or it may be ninety percent, but whatever it is, it's the first ten percent or the first ninety percent. Additional counterinsurgency doctrine is being developed. Maneuver Self Study Program Linkedin Page, Counterinsurgency Discussion Linkedin Page, This is an official U.S. Army Website sponsored by U.S. Army Maneuver Center of Excellence (MCoE), Moral, Ethical, 0000014523 00000 n In his Reflexiones Militares, published between 1726 and 1730, he discussed how to spot early signs of an incipient insurgency, prevent insurgencies, and counter them, if they could not be warded off. Insurgencies typically have political or religious motivation but criminal gangs can also become powerful enough to imperil a state's authority. #�pt Using the principles of revolutionary warfare evolved by the British Staff College, Camberley, the author has examined the validity of those principles. How did the leaders who led successful COIN operations in the past prepare prior to combat. 470 0 obj <> endobj Understanding what is involved in such campaigns will give civilian 0000002614 00000 n This manual continues the efforts of FM 3-24, Counterinsurgency, 0000014752 00000 n --T.E. 0000003520 00000 n counterinsurgency campaigns exhibited fundamental characteristics that remained constant. The Army should use the lessons learned in Iraq and Afghanistan to more effectively combat the current war against sexual predators in the Armed Forces. In true Clausewitzian fashion, the first principle – the political aim – is regarded as the most important, with the others all being of … Thompson's underlying assumption is that of a country minimally … It is the foremost responsibility of a commander in a COIN environment to understand the unique human and geographical terrain on which the maneuver forces operate. 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